Monday, October 11, 2010
To lose more weight, increase your metabolism to burn more energy and calories. Minerals that increase the metabolic rate are manganese, magnesium and calcium. Together they provide energy, protein and build lean muscle. Food sources of calcium are cheese, milk, yogurt, tofu, almonds, dried figs and spinach. Magnesium can often be found in sunflower seeds, pine nuts, cashews, walnuts, cocoa powder and soybeans. Herbs that increase metabolism are guarana and ginkgo biloba.
Boost Immune System
While losing weight, the body needs to have a strong immune system to protect it from bacteria and viruses. Iron and zinc are the best minerals to consume when trying to protect the body from toxins. Iron can be found in seaweed, lentils, beans, eggs, kale, dried apricots, lean beef or lamb. Wheat germ, pumpkin seeds, beef steak, sunflower and sesame seeds provide the body with zinc. Herbs that boost the immune system are lemon balm, mint and thyme.
Boost Bowel Movements
For optimal weight loss, minerals and herbs can create more frequent bowel movements to eliminate waste. Elimination depends on having a healthy digestive system so incorporating manganese, copper and sulfur into the diet will be beneficial. Legumes, dark chocolate, nuts and seeds, tofu, shellfish and poultry provide these minerals. You may also choose to drink herbal teas that are natural laxatives, such as dandelion root or senna leaf.
Minerals and herbs that are diuretics make you frequently urinate during weight loss. Potassium is a mineral that is a natural diuretic. Food sources of potassium include beets, sweet potatoes, oranges, dates, raisins, yogurt and tomatoes. For an herbal alternative, try nettle, lovage and parsley. These herbs not only act as diuretics, but also cleanse and detoxify the liver.
Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/274893-weight-loss-herbs-and-minerals/#ixzz123NKpOee
When building muscle mass, the workout is only half of the battle. The other half is your diet. Without a good diet, is impossible to gain any measure of lean muscle mass. That is because the workout serves as stimuli making your body build muscle tissue. However without protein stores and the proper diet, your body will not have any building blocks to make this possible.
Therefore, it is important that you make sure your body is stocked with the right muscle building diet to help in your goal of a leaner, more muscular look. Here are a few muscle gaining diet tips to help you build a diet that is sure to fuel that metamorphosis in your body.
1. Lean meat. Lean meat is rich in protein and is a good basic building block for more muscle. Meat such as steak and other protein-rich foods has been a staple of many bodybuilding experts for over the past few decades. However, make sure you avoid the fat as it could compromise your bodybuilding goals.
2. Fiber rich foods. Fiber has long been known to help those wanting to lose weight. First of all, it prevents the body from absorbing too much fat. And, it also helps lower cholesterol and is a source of slow-burning carbohydrates, which is ideal for those wanting to lose weight.
Examples of fiber rich grains are oatmeal, wheat, vegetables and fruits. You could also buy them as supplements at any health store.
3. Water. Most professional bodybuilders go on diuretics just lose body liquids so that there muscle cuts can be more pronounced. However it is important for anyone going for in the look to drink enough water since workouts deplete natural body fluids.
4. Soybeans. Soybeans are a great source of protein and are low in fat and contain virtually no cholesterol. Many have been heralding soybean as one of the saviors of muscle building and weight loss.
It can be eaten as tofu, bean curd desserts and others. It is also cheap and easy to procure.
5. Whey protein. Whey protein is ready available at any health shop. It can be taken in as a supplement and mixed with soups, vegetables, and shakes. Whey protein is easy to absorb and is one of the best sources of protein available.
6. Egg whites. The protein of eggs resides in its egg whites. So, if you want to bulk up and get your protein from eggs, eat the whites and avoid the yellow part of the egg. You may also want to purchase processed egg whites from help stores. They are also good sources of protein.
Sunday, September 5, 2010
The Secretary-General was envisioned by US President Franklin D. Roosevelt as a "world moderator," but the office was defined in the UN Charter as the organization's "chief administrative officer" (Article 97). Nevertheless, this more restricted description has not prevented the office holders from speaking out and playing important roles on global issues, to various degrees.
The official residence of the Secretary-General is a five-story townhouse in the Sutton Place neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City, New York, United States. The townhouse was built for Anne Morgan in 1921, and donated to the United Nations in 1972.
Friday, September 3, 2010
Labor Day is a United States federal holiday observed on the first Monday in September (September 6 in 2010).
The first Labor Day in the United States was celebrated on September 5, 1882 in New York City. It became a federal holiday in 1894, when, following the deaths of a number of workers at the hands of the U.S. military and U.S. Marshals during the Pullman Strike, President Grover Cleveland put reconciliation with the labor movement as a top political priority. Fearing further conflict, legislation making Labor Day a national holiday was rushed through Congress unanimously and signed into law a mere six days after the end of the strike. The September date was chosen as Cleveland was concerned that aligning an American labor holiday with existing international May Day celebrations would stir up negative emotions linked to the Haymarket Affair. All 50 U.S. states have made Labor Day a state holiday.
Sunday, August 29, 2010
–noun, plural -ties.
freedom from arbitrary or despotic government or control.
freedom from external or foreign rule; independence.
freedom from control, interference, obligation, restriction, hampering conditions, etc.; power or right of doing, thinking, speaking, etc., according to choice.
freedom from captivity, confinement, or physical restraint: The prisoner soon regained his liberty.
permission granted to a sailor, esp. in the navy, to go ashore.
freedom or right to frequent or use a place: The visitors were given the liberty of the city.
unwarranted or impertinent freedom in action or speech, or a form or instance of it: to take liberties.
a female figure personifying freedom from despotism.
free from captivity or restraint.
unemployed; out of work.
free to do or be as specified: You are at liberty to leave at any time during the meeting.
–noun, plural -nies.
arbitrary or unrestrained exercise of power; despotic abuse of authority.
the government or rule of a tyrant or absolute ruler.
a state ruled by a tyrant or absolute ruler.
oppressive or unjustly severe government on the part of any ruler.
undue severity or harshness.
a tyrannical act or proceeding.
A feral organism is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to a wild state. The introduction of feral animals or plants to their non-native regions, like any introduced species, can disrupt ecosystems and may, in some cases, contribute to extinction of indigenous species. However, returning lost species to their environment can have the opposite effect, bringing damaged ecosystems back into balance.
Saturday, August 14, 2010
Whether birds have a sense of smell or not has been a much debated question by ornithologists. Modern data based on experiments and anatomy of both the nasal cavities and the olfactory lobes of the brain suggest that most birds have practically no sense of smell. The exceptions are Kiwis which have poor eyesight and hunt worms using their sense of smell. Several species of tubenoses which can detect the smells of fish oils floating on the surface of the sea, allowing them to find schools of fish or anchovies because their messy feeding causes an oily scum to form on the surface of the sea. The third group of birds definitely known to use smell to locate food are the vultures - both old world and new world species have been shown to find carcasses by smell to varying degrees. Other groups of birds with well developed olfactory lobes, but for which the actual evidence of the use of smell to locate prey is lacking, include various waders, many water birds, nightjars and swifts.
Saturday, July 31, 2010
Drummond Pike (born October 11, 1948) is an American philanthropist, activist and social entrepreneur. He founded Tides Foundation in 1976 and is the current CEO of Tides. Pike helped pioneer the advent of donor advised funds in philanthropy.
Pike was born in San Rafael, California, the third of four brothers, to Peter Pike, an investment banker, and Catherine Cline Pike, Marin County’s first ever female pediatrician.
Pike studied Political Science at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and became involved in the anti-war movement of the late 1960s. He was selected as campus representative to the Board of Regents during his senior year in 1969, and graduated with a BA in 1970. Pike continued his education at the Eagleton Institute of Politics at Rutgers University  where he obtained a Master’s Degree in Political Science.
34 Years of Tides
Since 1976, Tides has worked with individuals and institutions committed to positive social change.
Tides was started out of a need to facilitate the giving of an anonymous couple in New Mexico. They wanted to support grassroots community groups and environmental organizations, and Drummond Pike created Tides Foundation to channel their grants. In 1979, there emerged another need that we responded to: helping new projects get started.
Through the 1980s, Tides grew slowly as we defined our role as a values based infrastructure for progressive nonprofit work. We define "progressive" as creating a positive impact on people's lives in ways that honor and promote human rights, justice, and a healthy, sustainable environment.
The 1990’s was a time of exponential growth for Tides as new Tides organizations were added. In 1996, the Projects Program that nurtured new activities became Tides Center, a nonprofit organization independent from Tides Foundation. In the same year, we opened the Thoreau Center for Sustainability - a twelve building complex in San Francisco's Presidio National Park dedicated to nonprofits concerned about social and environmental sustainability. In 1999, we founded Groundspring.org to facilitate online giving to progressive groups. We also collaborated in the launching of Tides Canada Foundation.
In the new millennium, our real estate endeavors - like the creation of Thoreau Center - evolved into a program called Tides Shared Spaces which creates, operates and promotes sustainable workspace for nonprofits. In 2005, Groundspring.org merged with Network for Good to form the largest nonprofit provider of Internet-based fundraising and donor management tools.
In the ten-year period between 1996 and 2006, Tides Center was fiscal sponsor to 677 projects with combined revenues of $522.4 million, and has worked with well over 800 projects since the first days as the Projects Program. Tides Foundation has had 30 years of visionary philanthropy for progressive social change. Since 2000, it has granted more than $400 million to progressive nonprofit organizations. Our growth is a testament to the joint commitment among our partners and staff to supporting positive social change domestically and globally. It is truly a privilege to do this work.
There are a number of reasons why the word "tides" is an appropriate metaphor for our work. Tides are a clean, efficient and sustainable source of energy. Tides connect us around the world. And tides are constantly changing the landscape around us.
The "Tides" name comes from a Bay Area independent bookstore that once served as a meeting place for readers, writers and activists. While honoring the progressive community which founded Tides, the name also suggests the remarkable power derived from people and ideas coming together at the right time, in the right place.
Tides Center is a non-profit organization in the United States which provides fiscal sponsorship for progressive groups. Tides Center is classified a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization by the IRS. The organization is based in San Francisco with offices in the Presidio.
Tides Center is administratively linked to the Tides Foundation; both are part of a family of organizations linked by a commitment to social change, innovation, and responsible stewardship of resources. Jeff Jones wrote the Stimulus Bill.
The Tides Center provides administrative services such as payroll, benefits, insurance, and tax form 990 in exchange for a fee.
Monday, July 26, 2010
A lower back tattoo is a body decoration, sometimes intended to emphasize sexual attractiveness. Such tattoos have become popular since the late 1990s, but they are sometimes derided as suggestive of promiscuity and pejoratively referred to as "tramp stamps", "slag tags", "pull out targets", and other slang terms.
While the lower back is not the widest area of the human back, it has abundant space for a large design, and horizontal tattoo designs can be worked easily. In contrast to the abdomen, which is otherwise a similar location, the lower back does not stretch significantly during pregnancy or other weight gains, thus providing a more stable site for a design. Lower back tattoos are often left uncovered by individuals wearing crop tops that are designed to expose the midriff, and low-rise jeans that are worn low around the hips.
Sunday, July 25, 2010
1. TIME YOUR PREMEAL SNACK
Eating a low-carbohydrate protein bar 90 minutes before you work out will enable you to exercise longer and harder (and burn more calories) than you normally would, says Steve Zim, author of Hot Point Fitness. However, that 90-minute mark is crucial. Eat any closer to your workout, and blood will rush to your stomach, actually diminishing your performance.
2. BREATHE THROUGH YOUR NOSE
Inhaling and exhaling through your nose, rather than your mouth, helps stabilize your heart rate and (like the preworkout snack) increase your endurance. The result? You work out longer and burn more calories. But don't get discouraged if it feels unnatural at first — it takes about six to eight workouts to perfect.
3. DO CARDIO LAST
Strength-train before doing any cardiovascular work, says Ken Fitzgerald, owner of Lift Gym in New York. Why? It takes the body about 15 minutes to warm up and start burning fat. So, a 30-minute bike ride is really only burning fat for the last 15 minutes of your workout. But, if you lift weights first, your body is warmed up by the time you hit the bike, and you'll burn fat throughout the entire ride.
4. VALUE VARIETY
Do the exact same workout every time you hit the gym, and your body will start to adapt to it — and eventually stop burning as many calories, says Zim. So if you jog one day, try biking or swimming the next. Or, if you weight-train from the shoulders down one day, next time, begin with your legs and work up. The important thing, Zim says, is to keep your body guessing.
5. DON'T SLOUCH
Slumping over the handlebars on a stationary bike inhibits the amount of oxygen your body can take in — and slows your fat-burning process, says Fitzgerald. The bars and handles are there to help you balance, not to support you. If you can't move without holding on, slow down.
6. TRAIN IN INTERVALS
The best way to burn fat is to work out as hard as you can for as long as you can, says Malick Diop, a trainer at Equinox Gyms in New York. But, if you're just starting to exercise, interval training's your ticket. Two minutes on the treadmill at, say, 7 mph, followed by two minutes at 5 mph, then back to 7 mph (and so on) for 20 to 45 minutes will whittle away pounds and build your endurance. Eventually, you'll be able to extend the high-intensity periods (and decrease the low ones) until your whole workout is done at top speed.
7. ADD LIGHT WEIGHTS
It's a fact: The more muscle tone you have, the more calories you burn — even when you're sitting still. So, if you can't seem to find time to weight-train and do your cardio, Zim suggests doing bicep curls and overhead presses holding two- to three-pound weights while you're fast-walking or stair-climbing. This will build muscle tone, helping you shed more fat during your cardio workout than you would without the weights.
Thank goodness the holidays are over, and the new year is here.
But are you finding that holiday celebrations have resulted in a new "you" as well?
As a personal trainer, I hear the same thing every year after the holidays: "Stefan, I gained fat over here," and "Stefan, I gained fat over there."
Be honest. Are you really surprised by the change in your body composition due to your calorie intake over the last few months?
You shouldn't be.
First, understand that your body's metabolism slows down 2 percent for each decade of your life after age 20. This means that your body burns calories more slowly with each passing year.
Burning Health Question? We Want Your Video Comments
As a result, you should also be more careful with your calories as you get older. How much more careful? You can figure it out with the simple calculation below that will give you your basal metabolic rate, or BMR:
Take your desired weight in pounds.
Multiply this number by 11 if you are a woman, 12 if you are a man.
Subtract 2 percent of this total for every 10 years after age 20.
Add 10 percent. This represents the calories you need to maintain your daily life functions.
The number you end up with is your minimum daily calorie intake.
So say you are a 50-year-old man who would like to keep your weight at a trim 140 pounds. Here's how you would calculate your BMR:
Desired weight = 140
140 × 12 = 1,680
1,680 - 3(1,680 × .02) = 1,57 9
1,579 + 158 = 1,737 calories per day
Now keep in mind that some of you are more active than others. Hence, you should add on 180 calories per hour of housework (or if your house is already clean, feel free to come by and help me!), 650 calories per hour of cycling, 800 calories for every hour of running, and 1,200 calories per hour for cross-country skiing.
If you want to lose body fat, however, calorie control is only one side of the equation. The question you still need to ask is: "How do you burn the most calories and, best, the most fat calories?"
Interval training! Yes, you need to push yourself. You need to vary your training intensity between 65 percent of your total capacity to 85 percent and 95 percent. This approach will help you to lose the most calories from fat.
Stefan Aschan is a fitness consultant in New York City.
In a 5-acre clearing in central New Jersey, half an hour south of Trenton, there's a hole about 6 feet deep and 15 feet across. Months ago, except for a few trees, the site was empty.
For decades, it was rumored to have been a stop on the Underground Railroad. Turns out it was. Now, Westampton Township has commissioned a geophysical survey and allowed Temple University archaeologists to do a thorough excavation. And they're finding that the freed and escaped slaves who made it here didn't just pass through — they stayed.
The site was once a village called Timbuctoo. In the 1820s, freed and escaped blacks formed a self-sustaining town well before the Civil War and emancipation. Timbuctoo survived through the end of slavery in New Jersey, the Fugitive Slave Act and the Jim Crow era. The last families didn't leave until the 1950s. At its peak, Timbuctoo was home to more than 150 people.
The villagers weren't all escaped slaves from the South. Some were freed slaves from New Jersey, and a few immigrants and American Indians joined the community as well.
Researchers don't know if the name "Timbuctoo" was chosen by the blacks who founded the village or by the Quakers in the area, who most likely offered assistance to them.
On a scorching 100-degree July day, Patricia Markert of Temple University and about a dozen others are digging and cleaning the site.
Markert is standing near a gaping hole in the field, where a building once stood. Her team has carefully dug down layer by layer. Underground are several houses, roadways, the remains of a church and a school.
"So the first area that we really dug are these center bricks, the center of the eastern foundation that we see here," says Markert, as she points to buried rows of dirt-covered bricks. "We knew this was here based on the geophysical survey."
Temple University's Chris Barton is the dig's leader.
The bricks they've found are throwaways from the Quaker brickyard that used to operate down the road, where many Timbuctoo residents worked. The construction of the buried building isn't top-notch — the residents did the best they could with what they had.
"These people had to deal with Jim Crow, they had to deal with slavery, they had to deal with economic oppression, racism," says Chris Barton, the Temple archaeologist leading the dig. "That's what we're really trying to find."
He says that every artifact recovered helps show the amazing tenacity of Timbuctoo residents. That tenacity was displayed by Timbuctoo residents in what's known as the Battle of Pine Swamp, when in 1860 the town rallied to protect a runaway slave named Perry Simmons from Southern bounty hunters.
A History In Bottles
About 40 feet from the excavation site, Markert rummages through an old white van. It's full of bottles, tools and toys dug up from the ground. The van is a temporary museum of sorts. Dozens of zip-lock bags sit where seats would be, full of categorized artifacts, waiting to go to Temple University for cleaning.
A lot of those artifacts are bottles for household products, like Listerine and Vaseline. What's notable is that most of the brand names on the bottles are national, because white-owned local stores rarely sold to the people of Timbuctoo. Residents often ordered supplies by mail, so vendors wouldn't know they were black.
Timbuctoo Lives On
One of the local volunteers, 75-year-old Mary Weston, lives just down the street. Since the dig began, she's been a fixture at the site.
"My great-great-great-grandfather actually purchased the land for, what was it, $38 dollars and 50 cents?" says Weston. He was one of the original inhabitants of Timbuctoo.
Weston has been collecting the history of her family and Timbuctoo. Inside her home, she shows off her favorite piece of Timbuctoo history.
"This is my family Bible. It was passed down to me from the 1800s," says Weston. "I keep it together with a belt, because ... I am determined that my children and my grandchildren will know a lot more about not only their family, but about their heritage, who they are, where they came from."
Back at the dig, Westampton Township's mayor, Sidney Camp, has arrived. He was instrumental in getting the dig started and frequently visited the clearing before he knew it was Timbuctoo:
"When I was having a bad day, I would come out here and just stand in the middle of this field, because it's so peaceful and so serene out here," says Camp. "To come out now and see what I've been standing over for so many years — it's amazing. It's indescribable."
Saturday, July 24, 2010
Friday, July 23, 2010
Harry Mason Reid (born December 2, 1939) is the senior United States Senator from Nevada and a member of the Democratic Party. First elected to the Senate in 1986, he was re-elected in 1992, 1998, and 2004, and is currently seeking a fifth term in 2010.
Reid has been the Senate Majority Leader since January 2007, having previously served as Minority Leader from 2005 until the Democrats won control of the Senate in the 2006 midterm elections. He earlier served as Senate Minority Whip (1999–2001, 2001, 2003–2005) and Senate Majority Whip (2001, 2001–2003).
Before his election to the Senate, Reid was a member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Nevada's 1st congressional district from 1983 to 1987. A native of Searchlight and graduate of Utah State University and George Washington University Law School, he previously served as city attorney of Henderson (1964–1966), a member of the Nevada Assembly (1969–1970), Lieutenant Governor of Nevada (1970–1974), and chairman of the Nevada Gaming Commission (1977–1981).
Reid apologized on January 9, 2010, for racially charged comments he had made when President Obama was campaigning for president. In private conversations, Reid had remarked that Obama could win the Presidency because the country was ready to embrace a black presidential candidate, especially one such as Obama—who he referred to as being "light-skinned" and "with no Negro dialect, unless he wanted to have one". These comments had been recently revealed by journalists Mark Halperin and John Heilemann in Game Change, their book about the 2008 election. In addition to his public apology, Reid called President Obama to apologize; Obama accepted his apology, stating that as far as he was concerned, the book was closed on the incident. RNC Chairman Michael Steele and Senators John Cornyn and Jon Kyl called on Reid to resign his leadership position in the Senate citing Majority Leader Trent Lott resigning because of a statement relating to race. However, this has virtually no chance of happening according to multiple experts. DNC Chairman Tim Kaine and Senators Dianne Feinstein and Jack Reed expressed support for Reid and confidence he would retain his leadership position, and another senior Democrat indicated Reid has "produced supportive statements from key African American leaders in the Congress and civil rights community".
Reid is a first generation member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon or LDS Church). Reid and his wife, who was born to Jewish immigrant parents and grew up in Henderson, converted to Mormonism while Reid was a college student. In a 2001 interview he said, "I think it is much easier to be a good member of the Church and a Democrat than a good member of the Church and a Republican." He went on to say that the Democrats' emphasis on helping others, as opposed to what he considers Republican dogma to the contrary, is the reason he's a Democrat. He delivered a speech at Brigham Young University to about 20,000 students on October 9, 2007, in which he expressed his opinion that Democratic values mirror Mormon values. Reid remains active in his congregations in Washington and Nevada, though he contrasts with the generally conservative Mormon population in the United States. Several Republican Mormons in Utah have contested his faith because of his politics, such as his private comments that the church's backing of California's Proposition 8 wasted resources.
PHILADELPHIA - A 1971 painting by fantasy artist Frank Frazetta has sold for $1.5 million, two months after the Pennsylvania artist's death.
Frazetta's managers said this week that a private collector bought "Conan the Destroyer" from a family trust. Managers Robert Pistella and Stephen Ferzoco call it the price the highest ever for a work by Frazetta.
The illustrator died in Florida in May at age 82. His iconic illustrations of Conan the Barbarian, Tarzan and other characters often graced comic books, album covers and movie posters.
In recent years, his children have fought over an estate estimated to be worth tens of millions of dollars.
The feud boiled over in December when Frank Frazetta Jr. used a backhoe to try to break into the artist's museum in the Pocono Mountains.
Monday, July 19, 2010
A PROJECT CENSORED/MEDIA-OCRACY NEWS REPORT
The Washington Times reports that dozens of Americans may be on the Obama administration’s hit list. In a June 24th report, the paper quotes John Brennan, the Deputy White House Nationa Security Advisor for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism explains that:
“There are, in my mind, dozens of U.S. persons who are in different parts of the world, and they are very concerning to us.” Meredith Bailey discusses the terror hit list in greater length below, drawing on the always seminal work of Glenn Greenwald.
Here’s an article by Glenn Greenwald about the dozens of Americans who are on the assassination hit list. There’s no opportunity for due process to prove the innocence for these Americans. If you are not aware by now, we are clearly living in a tyrannical government. Guantanamo Bay detention camp is still open and the Obama administration has no plans of shutting down Guantanamo Bay even though he promised he would make substantial efforts to close Guantanamo before we elected him. Innocent people have spent years in prison and the Obama admin knows this and does nothing to close Guantanamo.
The respected White House News Correspondent Helen Thomas was fired on June 7. Then General McChrystal was fired on June 22, and then Dave Weigel was fired from the Washington Post on June 26 for saying critical remarks in his private emails. All three of these respected American citizens lost their jobs this past month because they spoke freely and made some controversial remarks. The media destroyed their reputations and careers practically overnight after years of service. We are proud to be Americans because we have the right to freedom of speech. But that right is disappearing before our eyes. The outspoken are being attacked by the media. There’s also a law being pushed by Lieberman to shut down the Internet in America so freedom of speech is on the way out the door (http://www.dailypaul.com/node/137911).
Glenn Greenwald is one of the few remaining journalists left to speak truth to power.
How many Americans are targeted for assassination?
By Glenn Greenwald
When The Washington Post’s Dana Priest first revealed (in passing) back in January that the Obama administration had compiled a hit list of American citizens targeted for assassination, she wrote that “as of several months ago, the CIA list included three U.S. citizens.” In April, both the Post and the NYT confirmed that the administration had specifically authorized the assassination of Anwar al-Awlaki. Today, The Washington Times’ Eli Lake has an interview with Obama’s top Terrorism adviser John Brennan in which Brennan strongly suggests that the number of U.S. citizens targeted for assassination could actually be “dozens”:
Dozens of Americans have joined terrorist groups and are posing a threat to the United States and its interests abroad, the president’s most senior adviser on counterterrorism and homeland security said Thursday. . . . “There are, in my mind, dozens of U.S. persons who are in different parts of the world, and they are very concerning to us,” said John O. Brennan, deputy White House national security adviser for homeland security and counterterrorism. . . .
“If a person is a U.S. citizen, and he is on the battlefield in Afghanistan or Iraq trying to attack our troops, he will face the full brunt of the U.S. military response,” Mr. Brennan said. “If an American person or citizen is in a Yemen or in a Pakistan or in Somalia or another place, and they are trying to carry out attacks against U.S. interests, they also will face the full brunt of a U.S. response. And it can take many forms.”
Nobody — or at least not me — disputes the right of the U.S. or any other country to kill someone on an actual battlefield during war without due process. That’s just obvious, but that’s not remotely what Brennan is talking about, and it’s not remotely what this assassination program is about. Indeed, Brennan explicitly identified two indistinguishable groups of American citizens who “will face the full brunt of a U.S. response”: (1) those “on the battlefield in Afghanistan or Iraq”; and (2) those “in a Yemen or in a Pakistan or in Somalia or another place.” In other words, the entire world is a “battlefield” — countries where there is a war and countries where there isn’t — and the President’s “battlefield” powers, which are unlimited, extend everywhere. That theory — the whole world is a battlefield, even the U.S. — was the core premise that spawned 8 years of Bush/Cheney radicalism, and it has been adopted in full by the Obama administration (indeed, it was that “whole-world-is-a-battlefield” theory which Elena Kagan explicitly endorsed during her confirmation hearing for Solicitor General).
Anyone who doubts that the Obama administration has adopted the core Terrorism policies of Bush/Cheney should listen to the concession — or boast — which Brennan himself made in his interview with Lake:
Mr. Brennan toward the end of the interview acknowledged that, despite some differences, there is considerable continuity between the counterterrorism policies of President Bush and President Obama.
“There has been a lot of continuity of effort here from the previous administration to this one,” he said. “There are some important distinctions, but sometimes there is too much made of those distinctions. We are building upon some of the good foundational work that has been done.”
I would really like never to hear again the complaint that comparing Bush and Obama’s Terrorism and civil liberties policies is unfair, invalid or hyperbolic given that Obama’s top Terrorism adviser himself touts that comparison. And that’s anything but a surprise, given that Brennan was a Bush-era CIA official who defended many of the most controversial Bush/Cheney Terrorism policies.
I’ve written at length about the reasons why targeting American citizens for assassination who are far away from a “battlefield” is so odious and tyrannical, and I won’t repeat those arguments here. Suffice to say — and I’m asking this literally — if you’re someone who believes, or are at least willing to acquiesce to the claim, that the U.S. President has the power to target your fellow citizens for assassination without a whiff of due process, what unchecked presidential powers wouldn’t you support or acquiesce to? I’d really like to hear an answer to that. That’s the question Al Gore asked about George Bush in a 2006 speech condemning Bush’s claimed powers merely to eavesdrop on and imprison American citizens without charges, let alone assassinate them: “If the answer is yes, then under the theory by which these acts are committed, are there any acts that can on their face be prohibited? . . . If the president has th[is] inherent authority. . . . then what can’t he do?” Can anyone defending this Obama policy answer that question?
One other thing that is truly amazing: the U.S. tried to import this same due-process-free policy to Afghanistan. There, the U.S. last year compiled a “hit list” of 50 Afghan citizens whose assassination it authorized on the alleged ground (never charged or convicted) that they were drug “kingpins” or funding the Talbian. You know what happened? This:
A U.S. military hit list of about 50 suspected drug kingpins is drawing fierce opposition from Afghan officials, who say it could undermine their fragile justice system and trigger a backlash against foreign troops. . . .
Gen. Mohammad Daud Daud, Afghanistan’s deputy interior minister for counternarcotics efforts . . . said he worried that foreign troops would now act on their own to kill suspected drug lords, based on secret evidence, instead of handing them over for trial . . . “They should respect our law, our constitution and our legal codes,” Daud . “We have a commitment to arrest these people on our own” . . . .
The U.S. military and NATO officials have authorized their forces to kill or capture individuals on the list, which was drafted within the past year as part of NATO’s new strategy to combat drug operations that finance the Taliban.. . . . “There is a constitutional problem here. A person is innocent unless proven guilty,” [Ali Ahmad Jalali, a former Afghan interior minister] said. “If you go off to kill or capture them, how do you prove that they are really guilty in terms of legal process?”
In other words, Afghans — the people we’re occupying in order to teach about Freedom and Democracy — are far more protective of due process and the rule of law for their own citizens than Americans are who meekly submit to Obama’s identical policy of assassination for their fellow citizens. It might make more sense for Afghanistan to invade and occupy the U.S. in order to spread the rule of law and constitutional values here.
Sunday, July 18, 2010
In a recent report entitled 'Libya of Tomorrow: What for Human Rights,' Amnesty lays a slate of violations at Tripoli's door - women flogged for adultery, amputations as a consequence of theft, and the death penalty for free speech - and calls, unreservedly on the EU not to ignore the country's dire track record at the expense of national interests.
Health care in North Korea is in a state of crisis. That's according to
a new Amnesty International report today. It's based on interviews with more
than 40 North Korean defectors. The human rights group told of amputations
performed without anesthesia and spreading disease tied to chronic malnutrition.
Monday, July 12, 2010
Weatherman, known colloquially as the Weathermen and later the Weather Underground Organization (abbreviated WUO), was an American radical left organization. It originated in 1969 as a faction of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) composed for the most part of the national office leadership of SDS and their supporters. Their goal was to create a clandestine revolutionary party for the violent overthrow of the US government and the establishment of a dictatorship of the proletariat.
With leadership whose revolutionary positions were characterized by Black separatist rhetoric, the group conducted a campaign of bombings through the mid-1970s, including aiding the jailbreak and escape of Timothy Leary. The "Days of Rage", their first public demonstration on October 8, 1969, was a riot in Chicago timed to coincide with the trial of the Chicago Seven. In 1970 the group issued a "Declaration of a State of War" against the United States government, under the name "Weather Underground Organization" (WUO). The bombing attacks mostly targeted government buildings, along with several banks. Most were preceded by evacuation warnings, along with communiqués identifying the particular matter that the attack was intended to protest. For the bombing of the United States Capitol on March 1, 1971, they issued a communiqué saying it was "in protest of the US invasion of Laos." For the bombing of the Pentagon on May 19, 1972, they stated it was "in retaliation for the US bombing raid in Hanoi." For the January 29, 1975 bombing of the United States Department of State Building, they stated it was "in response to escalation in Vietnam."
The Weathermen grew out of the Revolutionary Youth Movement (RYM) faction of SDS. It took its name from the lyric "You don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows", from the Bob Dylan song Subterranean Homesick Blues. You don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows was the title of a position paper they distributed at an SDS convention in Chicago on June 18, 1969. This founding document called for a "white fighting force" to be allied with the "Black Liberation Movement" and other radical movements to achieve "the destruction of US imperialism and achieve a classless world: world communism."
The Weathermen largely disintegrated after the United States reached a peace accord in Vietnam in 1973, which saw the general decline of the New Left.
Sunday, July 11, 2010
4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to 3G and 2G families of standards. The nomenclature of the generations generally refers to a change in the fundamental nature of the service, non-backwards compatible transmission technology and new frequency bands. The first was the move from 1981 analogue (1G) to digital (2G) transmission in 1992. This was followed, in 2002, by 3G multi-media support, spread spectrum transmission and at least 200 kbit/s, soon expected to be followed by 4G, which refers to all-IP packet-switched networks, mobile ultra-broadband (gigabit speed) access and multi-carrier transmission. Pre-4G technologies such as mobile WiMAX and first-release 3G Long term evolution (LTE) have been available on the market since 2006 and 2009 respectively.
Wednesday, July 7, 2010
When a missing page from the diary of John Wilkes Booth surfaces, Bens great-great grandfather is suddenly implicated as a key conspirator in Abraham Lincolns death. Determined to prove his ancestors innocence, Ben follows an international chain of clues that takes him on a chase from Paris to London and ultimately back to America. This journey leads Ben and his crew not only to surprising revelations but to the trail of the worlds most treasured secrets.
Five days after the end of the Civil War, John Wilkes Booth and Michael O'Laughlen, both members of the Knights of the Golden Circle (KGC), enter a tavern and approach Thomas Gates (Ben Gates' great-great-grandfather), a well-known puzzle solver, to decode a message written in Booth's diary. Thomas recognizes the message and begins to translate it. While he does so, Booth leaves for Ford's Theatre to assassinate President Abraham Lincoln. Thomas solves the puzzle, a clue to a map to Cibola, the city of gold, and realizes the men are still loyal to the South and have a sinister motive for finding the treasure. A fight breaks out, and Thomas rips several pages from the diary and throws them in the fireplace. Thomas is shot, and the gunman attempts to retrieve the pages, but only obtains a page fragment. As Thomas dies, Thomas tells his distraught son, Charles Gates, "The debt that all men pay..."
Over 140 years later, Ben Gates (Nicolas Cage) is telling his great-great-grandfather's story at a Civilian Heroes conference. Black market dealer Mitch Wilkinson (Ed Harris), a Virginia Military Institute graduate, shows one of the 18 missing pages of John Wilkes Booth's diary, with Thomas Gates' name on it, convincing everyone that Thomas was not only a conspirator, but the grand architect of the Lincoln assassination, which tarnishes the Gates family's reputation and Ben is disgraced. Refusing to allow his ancestor's name to be tarnished, Ben sets out to prove the innocence of his great-great-grandfather. Ben discovers a cipher pointing to Édouard Laboulaye hidden on the back of the diary page. He travels to Paris, France, where he finds a clue engraved on the torch of the scale model of the Statue of Liberty on the Île des Cygnes, referring to the two Resolute desks. Ben then heads to England to look at the desk at Buckingham Palace with the help of his friend Riley Poole (Justin Bartha) and estranged girlfriend, Abigail Chase (Diane Kruger) (His relationship with Abigail having soured due to him constantly predicting what she might want without even bothering to ask her, even if he is often correct in his assumptions). From the Queen's desk, he obtains an ancient wooden plank with ancient symbols carved into it.
Meanwhile, Wilkinson breaks into Patrick Gates' (Jon Voight) house and clones Patrick's cell phone in order to track Ben's whereabouts. Wilkinson eventually obtains the wooden plank, but not before Ben manages to photograph the symbols carved into the plank. At Ben's insistence, Patrick reluctantly asks his ex-wife and Ben's mother, Dr. Emily Appleton (Helen Mirren) for help in translating the symbols. She does so, but points out that some of the glyphs are partial, leading Ben to conclude another plank must be hidden in the other Resolute desk located in the Oval Office. Ben and Abigail coax Abigail's new love interest, Connor (Ty Burrell), who works at the White House, into letting them into the office to see the desk. Ben discovers that the second plank is missing, but he does find a stamp bearing the seal of the Book of Secrets. Riley tells Ben that the Book of Secrets contains documents collected by Presidents for Presidents' eyes only, covering such controversial subjects as the eighteen minutes erased from Watergate tapes, Area 51, and the assassination of John F. Kennedy.
After he and his family set the situation up so that all other hotels where the party might take place are fully booked, Ben crashes the president's birthday party at Mount Vernon, where he meets the president (Bruce Greenwood). After showing him a map of Mt. Vernon drawn by George Washington, Ben convinces the president to follow him into a secret tunnel under the House where he confronts him about the book; the president sympathetically warns Ben that his actions will be interpreted as an attempt to kidnap the president, confirming a conclusion Ben and his companions have already reached; Ben is now wanted for committing a federal offense. Ben convinces the president to reveal the location of the book, which is at the Library of Congress. The President also tells Ben to read page 47 along with the information he needs. Shooting of the film in London
In the book, Ben finds a picture of the missing plank from the desk and an entry by President Coolidge, who found the plank in 1924, had it destroyed, and commissioned Gutzon Borglum to carve Mount Rushmore to erase the map's landmarks in order to protect the treasure. Ben, Riley, Abigail, and Patrick head to Mount Rushmore where they meet Wilkinson, who has kidnapped Ben's mother. He helps them find the entrance of a cave containing the legendary Native American city of gold, Cíbola. Once inside, they encounter several traps, and Ben, Abigail, Riley, and Wilkinson get separated from Ben's parents. Eventually, they find the city of gold behind Mount Rushmore. However, in order to leave the city of gold when it suddenly begins flooding, one person has to stay behind to hold open the stone door to the drainage tunnel beneath the city, an action which would result in certain death. Wilkinson demands to go first by threatening Abigail, so Ben agrees to stay behind. However the pounding of waves causes Wilkinson to be the one to stay behind, where he drowns in the cavern beneath the city.
Ben clears his family's name with the discovery and is cleared of all charges when the president tells everyone that Ben did not kidnap him, but actually saved his life when the secret passage they were looking at was accidentally activated. Everyone including Wilkinson is given credit for the discovery of the Lost City of Gold. The president then asks Ben about what he read on page 47 of the Book of Secrets, to which Ben replies, "It's life-altering, sir."
The last scene shows Riley walking down the street when he sees his towed car. He jumps in, and discovers a letter from the president. The back says "Tax Free." Riley reverses, and crashes.
Tuesday, July 6, 2010
Total responses: 1591 (0.50% of all responses, 0.54% of all U.S. responses)
pop: 709 (44.56% of all Utah responses, 0.57% of all pop responses)
soda: 658 (41.36% of all Utah responses, 0.52% of all soda responses)
coke: 126 (7.92% of all Utah responses, 0.26% of all coke responses)
other: 98 (6.16% of all Utah responses, 0.63% of all other responses)
CONCLUSION: People who say "Pop" are much, much cooler.
Sunday, July 4, 2010
A Black educator who lived here, White was the principal of the Robert Vaux School for forty years. He was a founder of the city's first Black baseball club, the Pythians, and the first president of the Frederick Douglass Memorial Hospital.
Al Gore gets friendly during a massage and a woman thinks he is trying to rape her. Her friends encourage her to suck it up and forget the incident or otherwise the planet will burn up from Global Warming, leaving Bill Clinton jealous of Gore’s leverage.
The police report of the masseuse’s complaint is 73 pages long and extremely detailed. According to the document, she got a call from the front desk of the trendy Hotel Lucia on the night of Oct. 24, 2006. The hotel had a special guest. Could she come at 10:30 p.m.?
She went to Gore’s room carrying a folding massage table and other equipment. Gore, whom she had never met, greeted her with a warm embrace. “The hug went on a bit long, and I was taken just a bit aback by it,” the masseuse told police. But she went along because Gore “was a VIP and a powerful individual and the Hotel Lucia had made it clear to me by inference that they were giving him ‘the royal treatment.’”
Gore said he was tired from travel and described in detail the massage he wanted. It included work on the adductor muscles, which are on the inside of the thighs. “I mentally noted that a request for adductor work is a bit unusual,” the masseuse told police, because it can be “a precursor to inappropriate behavior by a male client.”
Gore also requested work on his abdomen. When that began, “He became somewhat vocal with muffled moans, etc.,” the masseuse recounted. Gore then “demand[ed] that I go lower.” When she remained focused on a “safe, nonsexual” area, Gore grew “angry, becoming verbally sharp and loud.”
The masseuse asked Gore what he wanted. “He grabbed my right hand, shoved it down under the sheet to his pubic hair area, my fingers brushing against his penis,” she recalled, “and said to me, ‘There!’ in a very sharp, loud, angry-sounding tone.” When she pulled back, Gore “angrily raged” and “bellowed” at her.
Gore seems to have a magical ability to transform his personality from a sanctimonious crusader for mankind to a pathological rapist (Think Ted Bundy) in seconds.
Then, abruptly, the former vice president changed tone. It was “as though he had very suddenly switched personalities,” she recalled, “and began in a pleading tone, pleading for release of his second chakra there.”
At that moment, the masseuse brought up Gore’s long marriage. “How do you rectify this with your wife?” she asked. That brought on another “quick shift” in Gore’s mood. “I never saw anybody’s moods just go like this,” the masseuse told police, snapping her fingers.
“Chakra,” in Gore’s new-agey jargon, refers to the body’s “energy centers,” which the masseuse interpreted as having a specific meaning. “This was yet another euphemism for sexual activity he was requesting,” she told police, “put cleverly as though it were a spiritual request or something.”
She wanted to end the session, but Gore “wrapped me in an inescapable embrace” and “caressed my back and buttocks and breasts.” She tried to get away — in the process calling Gore a “crazed sex poodle” — but the former vice president was too strong for her.
A little later, she said, Gore produced a bottle of brandy and mentioned there were condoms in the “treat box” provided by the hotel. “He then forced an open mouth kiss on me,” she said.
Apparently, the sanctimonious crusader is turned on by criticism of George Bush. He told the woman he wanted her to listen to a song that attacks George Bush, titled “DearMr Preident”, by “Pink” and became violently and sexually aroused by the music.
“As soon as he had it playing, he turned to me and immediately flipped me flat on my back and threw his whole body face down over atop of me,” she said. “I was just shocked at his craziness.”
“He pleaded, grabbed me, engulfed me in embrace, tongue kissed me, massaged me, groped by breasts and painfully squeezed my nipples through my clothing, pressed his pelvis against mine, rubbed my buttocks with his hands and fingers and rubbed himself against my crotch, saying, ‘You know you want to do it.’”
Finally she got away. Later, she talked to friends, liberals like herself, who advised against telling police. One asked her “to just suck it up; otherwise, the world’s going to be destroyed from global warming.”
She got a lawyer and made an appointment to talk with authorities. She canceled and did not tell police until January 2009 and even then did not press charges.
In 2007, a Portland paper learned what had happened. Gore’s lawyers called the story “absolutely false,” and it wasn’t published.
It is humorous that Liberals who have backed the call for feminism and feminists themselves consider the indiscretions of a Leftist Leader to be excusable as long as the perpetrator stands for the “Part Line”. Such passions are to be expected by powerful men and women should just accept being raped if it is in the best interests of the party, after all they are great and powerful men.
Philadelphians marked the first anniversary of American independence with a spontaneous celebration, which is described in a letter by John Adams to Abigail Adams. However, observing Independence Day only became commonplace after the War of 1812. Soon, events such as groundbreaking ceremonies for the Erie Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad were scheduled to coincide with July 4th festivities.
In 1859, the Banneker Institute of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, urged African Americans to celebrate Independence Day while bearing witness to the inconsistencies between the ideals espoused in the Declaration of Independence and the practice of slavery. Banneker's orator of the day, Mr. Jacob C. White Jr., also promised his audience a brighter future:
We have learned by experience and by the comparison of ourselves with people similarly situated, to hope that, at some day not very far in futurity, our grievances will be redressed, that our long lost rights will be restored to us, and that, in the full stature of men, we will stand up, and with our once cruel opponents and oppressors rejoice in the Declaration of our common country, and hail with them the approach of the glorious natal day of the Great Republic.
Friday, July 2, 2010
I'm sure most of my readers have seen Mafia funerals depicted on "The Sopranos" or "The Godfather" movies.
The FBI is always there, photographing every dapper suited "don" and thuggish looking "soldier".
In its war against the Mafia, the FBI knows that funerals are a great opportunity to learn more about the Mob's "order of battle", hierachy and internal relationships.
Socialist funerals and memorial services can be a bit like that.
In politics, as in other forms of crime, you may be judged by the company you keep.
On March 13th 1998, Saul Mendelson, a lifelong socialist activist died in Chicago.
Mendelson had been a member of various Trotskyist factions in the 1930s and '40s before joining the US Socialist Party.
In 1958 Mendelson founded the Debs Dinner, an ongoing annual event and highpoint of the Chicago socialist calendar.
Over the years, the dinner has served as a focal point for Chicago's socialist, ex Trotskyist, ex-communist and left wing Democratic Party community.
In 1983, many of the Debs Dinner crowd helped form a new Marxist organisation-Democratic Socialists of America (DSA)
The Debs Dinner crowd/DSA, in conjunction with the Communist Party, helped elect Chicago's leftist Mayor Harold Washington in 1983, Carol Mosely Braun to the US Senate in 1992 and Barack Obama to the Illinois State Senate in 1996 and to the US Senate in 2004.
The same crowd continues to back Barack Obama in his current bid for the US presidency.
Saul Mendelson was a leader of the Chicago DSA and personally played a large role in the election of Harold Washington.
The Saul Mendelson Memorial Service was held on Sunday, March 29, 1998, at the First Unitarian Church, Chicago.
According to Chicago DSA leader, Carl Marx Shier (who addressed the gathering);
At the memorial service held at the 1st Unitarian Church on South Woodlawn, speaker after speaker recounted Saul's contributions.
The service was ably MC'd by a retired colleague, Bob Clark. I spoke first and was followed by Saul's friend Deborah Meier, a MacArthur Genius Grant recipient who is now starting a new school in Boston. Amy Isaacs, National Director of the ADA, spoke of what Saul had meant on foreign affairs to the ADA.
Other speakers included Senator Carol Moseley Braun, Alderman Toni Preckwinkle, State Senator Barak Obama, Illinois House Majority Leader Barbara Flynn Currie and a good friend from New York, Myra Russell.
The concluding remarks were made by an old friend, Harriet Lefley, who is now Professor of Psychology at the University of Miami Medical School.
Deborah Meier was a former Trotsyist and Socialist Party comrade of Saul Mendelson's and a leader of Chicago and Boston DSA.
Amy Isaacs was national director of Americans for Democratic Action. In recent years ADA has been increasingly linked to DSA and the DSA initiated Congressional Progressive Caucus.
Carol Moseley Braun was then a US Senator with strong links to both DSA and the Communist Party. Barack Obama helped get her elected in 1992 and then took over her old Senate seat in 2004.
State Senator Barak Obama probably knew Saul Mendelson through his ties to the old communist/socialist infiltrated, Independent Voters of Illinois, in which Mendelson played a leading role.
Alderman Toni Preckwinkle and Illinois House Majority Leader Barbara Flynn Currie, are both leftist Democrats with ties to Chicago's socialist community. Both endorsed Barack Obama in his successful 2004 bid for the US Senate.
Harriet Lefley was a Trotskyist in the 1940s with Saul Mendelson.
Eulogies also came from Quinn Brisben, (Socialist Party presidential candidate 1976, 1992) and David McReynolds (Socialist Party presidential candidate 1980, 2000).
Both Brisben and McReynolds are also members of DSA.
Ten short years ago, Barack Obama was up to his ears in the Chicago socialist mafia.
Like the criminal mafia, the socialist version gets want it wants through fraud and other covert means. Deception and underhand political maneuvrings are the socialists stock in trade.
The US wouldn't want a president who had ties to the criminal mafia.
Why would they want a president with links to the socialist "mob"?
Sunday, June 27, 2010
1. Precept 1
Agility – The body must be agile, fast and alive with energy. If you take any step you hand must make a corresponding quick movement. The movement of all body parts must be completely coordinated. If about to strike do not even look at the shadow of your hand, never attract attention to your fist. Only if you improve your skills constantly will you reach the pinnacle of your combat potential.
2. Precept 2
‘Motion and rest of two arms and two feet must be in coordination and in supplement of each other’ It is believed that the motion of the heart is in control of how energy or ‘chi‘ is distributed to the whole body and originates at the cinnabar or ‘dantian’ field i.e. three to five centimeters below the navel.
How the chi is vibrating affects how the body will behave. If the chi flows freely the body will be heroic and tough like a tiger or dragon. When the body’s force and energy combine it is manifested by the ability to ‘exert astonishing sounds.
3. Precept 3 It is believed that during a fight all the five elements should be uniquely fused. The five elements of nature interact constantly and to understand them they should be observed. An understanding of the laws of birth and the ’surmounting of the five elements’ enables a Shaolin warrior to absorb the meaning of combat arts.
Each element originates with unified chi energy, the force which causes the body to act. If you grasp these concepts you will have incredible strength. Blood and chi are required to be in harmony and if so the Shaolin warrior will have superior health and strength.
Precept 4 for a Shaolin Monk
You must know and understand the eight-point theory of ‘ba tiao’. For example you move up and down and retreat in such a way that your retreat seems to be an advance. Following this law, the eight successes will be phenomenal. Precept four aims at learning how to make swift movements up and pliable, soft downward movements. All movements will be supremely coordinated.
During combat you need to be prepared to take on an enemy who appears, disappears and reappears. An enemy can be as dangerous as a tiger which has been let out of his cage but if you can turn and defend yourself in an instant from both front and rear you are a divine protector of combat arms who is guarded from all sides.
You need to be able to protect the left and the right very quickly. When retreating, you must decoy your enemy in a trap. Be furious as this will help you. Small birds who take their chance can fly over a high mountain!
‘Your gait must be as stout as that of gods’. It is a better idea to make five more steps than to make a mistake by one qun (one qun is equal to 3.2 cm approximately)’.
Movements during combat vary. Measured steps or ‘gun bu’ must be separate from each other by not more than three chis (one chi is equal to 0.32 m). As your life is always at stake in combat you must step carefully. Steps that are steady should be separated from each other by five chis. Steps that are too big are equal to two gongs (in ancient times one gong was equal to five chis).
Quick stepping (kuai bu) is equal to one zhan (one zhan is equal to 10 chis). A horizontal leap is made with the energetic force of thighs and feet. Spilling steps (zhan bu) are great upward leaps taken to break out of encirclement.
This rule pertains to the knowledge of arm and leg movements during combat. Shaolin fist work is unique in the discipline. Each punch should ‘pierce the enemy and cut him into pieces’. An arm should bend without bending and unbend without unbending. This is so the enemy can’t follow your movements and can’t get a good view of your punch.
The arms must separate the thorax with great speed. Training and activity of sinuous body parts determines how much force the arms have. Punches must take your enemy by surprise, so he can’t avoid the blow. The arm should make an accurate cut, flying upwards obediently and readily, or, if required, go down.
It does not matter in what way the body is twisted or if your hands are bound, it is believed that you might free yourself, ‘like a swallow has always a chance to find water springs.’ If one hand is pinned down or both hands are restrained, you can punch with a stone elbow into the enemy’s pudenda from below.
Seven leg works also exist:
“qi” – uprising
“fan” – overturning
“lo” – tumbling
“zhin” – advance
“ti” – kick
“qai” – kick
“zhuan” – kick.
The five natural elements bond to form a single “chi” and feet act in unison from the front and behind so you cannot be approached. Warriors must move step-by-step and make no sound but those of ‘punches of infuriated soles touching the ground after strikes. The legs are like ferocious tigers or dragons in the sky’.
Precept 7 for a Shaolin Monk
This rule demands the simultaneous advances of arms and legs. During combat arms and legs act together and depend on each other. This means when you advance towards your enemy the legs, arms and torso act in complete agreement.
The following qualities are to be achieved: mind, body obedience, manhood, speed and fury.
Mental work or ‘gong’ means that during a fight one must depend on your mind. Body obedience or ’shun’ means you must train for a long time to make movement natural. Manliness or ‘yong’ indicates that you should work out bold plans and achieve them boldly. Speed or ‘ji’ demands that during hand-to-hand fighting you must act quickly. Fury or ‘hen’ must be present only at the moment when you attack.
You are encouraged to watch over enemy’s stances and positions and understand them with a view to finding his weak points. Never start fighting and deliver blows without thinking about and studying your enemy.
This rule relates to the concept of ‘all-round defense’. It concentrates on its unique manifestations and timely pursuit. The rule of cover or ‘ting’ relates to permanent protection in the front, from the behind, from the left and from the right. Apart from these areas one need to remember that the enemy may strike from above and from below.
‘Zhe or the rule of distinct manifestation is used for work of arms, body, head and heart. All movements should be clear and efficient at the moment of action. Your shout should frighten your enemy. ‘You should be able to win without a fight, only with your loud laughter’.
The rule of pursuit or ‘zhui’ relates to of using any opportunity to pursue your enemy. Never give him a chance to collect himself. When an enemy’s steps become faster you should use the chance to attack him.
The three human elements namely: eyes, ears and heart intelligence should be in harmony at all times. Eyes must be attentive and active and monitor the enemy’s movements constantly. Keep the ears alert to sense movements and rest.
Precept 10 for a Shaolin Monk
This rules advises warrior monks to use their sinews. ‘Shen’ is the ability to use spiritual sources. Sinews are chiefs of bones and if they tremble, “chi” energy is wasted. It is believed that sinews are transmitters of information from the three senses (vision, hearing and mind).
There are several attributes required by Shaolin warriors and you will need to attain them if you want to become a Shaolin monk.
1. To be as graceful as a cat
2. To be as aggressive as the tiger
3. To step like a dragon
4. To act like a lightning stroke
5. To shout like thunder
6. To move like a gust of wind
7. To stay like a nail
8. To be as heavy as a mountain
9. To be as light as goose down
10. To be soft as cotton wool
11. As hard as iron
If you are serious about your intent to become a Shaolin monk you will need to study, understand and practice the ten basic precepts of combat until you have mastered them. Still this is only the beginning; there is a wealth of skills and techniques to discover as well. For in depth information oh how to become a Shaolin monk read ‘72 Secret Arts’ (now in English) compiled by Jin Jing Zhong.
Those are the Ten Basic Precepts of Combat Arts. To achieve them, one must work a lot. The most valuable quality for mastery of combat arms is persistence. One must persistently practice pugilistic arms and weapon use.
One should remember that only the noble men of high morals may be taught the true combat art. On no account a bad man who does not follow true “dao” (the way) should be taught.
Although people are often frightened of mummies, it is untrue that finding a mummy can lead to a curse on the discoverer. Author Christine El Mahdy believes that those who first expressed fear of mummies were the Arabs, who conquered Egypt in A.D. 641. Arab writers warned people not to tamper with mummies or their tombs; they knew that Egyptians practiced magic during funerals. And the paintings on the walls of Egyptian tombs seemed to suggest that mummies could return to life and seek revenge.
The idea that mummies had magic power eventually appealed to the imaginations of authors. After the first ghost story about a mummy's curse was published in 1699, many more followed. But the longest lasting episode involving a mummy's curse was the discovery and opening of King Tutankhamen's tomb in 1923.
This story has been told many times, but fact and fiction are usually blended. Two recent authors who have separated the facts from the myths are Christopher Frayling and Nicholas Reeves.
First, the facts: Lord Carnarvon, who had funded the search for King Tut's tomb, and archaeologist Howard Carter entered the king's burial chamber on February 17, 1923. On or about March 6, Lord Carnarvon was bitten by a mosquito on his cheek and became ill. Reported in the media, this event caused many people to jump to the conclusion that King Tut's tomb was cursed.
Many famous people volunteered their theories to the press. For example, Marie Corelli, a popular novelist at the time, expressed her thoughts in a letter published in New York and London newspapers. In part, her letter read:
I cannot but think some risks are run by breaking into the last rest of a king in Egypt whose tomb is specially and solemnly guarded, and robbing him of his possessions. According to a rare book I possess . . . entitled The Egyptian History of the Pyramids [an ancient Arabic text], the most dire punishment follows any rash intruder into a sealed tomb. The book . . . names 'secret poisons enclosed in boxes in such wise that those who touch them shall not know how they come to suffer'. That is why I ask, Was it a mosquito bite that has so seriously infected Lord Carnarvon?
Corelli reported that the Egyptian author also warned: "Death comes on wings to he who enters the tomb of a pharaoh."
Her concerns seemed to be on target when Lord Carnarvon's condition worsened. The mosquito bite became infected, he contracted pneumonia, and on April 5, he died. The legend of the curse became fact and was enhanced by many rumors. Here are five of the most famous rumors - and the real truth behind them:
Rumor 1: On the day of the tomb opening, Carter's pet canary was eaten by a cobra (a symbol of the ancient pharaohs). The truth is that, although Carter had a pet canary, he gave it to a friend named Minnie Burton to watch, and she gave it (alive and well) to a bank manager.
Rumor 2: At the moment that Carnarvon died in Cairo Hospital, the lights across Cairo went out for five minutes. Actually, around the time that Carnarvon died, the hospital lights did go out for a few moments. Within a few weeks' time, this fact was twisted into the more interesting rumor. As Christine El Mahdy points out, the lights in Cairo are notorious for going out without warning - even today.
Rumor 3: Carnarvon's dog Susie, back in England, howled and dropped dead at exactly two o'clock in the morning, the time that Carnarvon died. No one knows whether this story is true or not, but it seems suspicious, especially since Egypt and England do not share the same time zone. The story might be a bit more believable if Susie had died at two o'clock Egyptian time.
Rumor 4: Over the door to King Tut's tomb was an inscription that read "Death shall come on swift wings to him that toucheth the tomb of the Pharaoh." Notice that this inscription closely matches the quotation Marie Corelli cited from the ancient Arabic text. Even today, it is easy to find books that report this inscription as fact. For example, in his recent book about mummies, author John Vornholt writes, "In an outer chamber, they [Carter and Carnarvon] found a clay tablet that read: 'Death will slay with his wings whoever disturbs the peace of the Pharaoh.'" This is simply not true.
Rumor 5: Most of the people present at the opening of the tomb met untimely deaths. Again, Vornholt writes that "13 of 20 people who were present at the opening of King Tut's burial chamber died within a few years." Vornholt does not give his source for this information, but it is clearly incorrect. The truth is that the newspapers at the time had a field day with the curse. Whenever anyone related to Carnarvon or the discovery of the tomb died, the death was taken as proof that the curse was in effect.
However, Egyptologist Herbert E. Winlock examined the evidence some 12 years after the tomb's opening. Of the 26 people present at the opening of the burial chamber, only 6 had died within the next 10 years. When King Tut's sarcophagus was opened, 22 of the 26 people were present, but only 2 of them had died within 10 years afterward. Finally, only 10 of the 26 people had watched the unwrapping of the mummy. And none of them had died within the next decade! In fact, many of the people who had the most contact with the king's mummy lived long and productive lives.
Saturday, June 26, 2010
The Pinta Island tortoise - Without argument, this turtle is one of the few species of Giant Galapagos tortoises and the rarest animal in the world since there is only one left alive. Lonesome George is the sole surviving member of the Pinta Island race, the giant tortoise being a symbol for the fragility of the Galapagos islands, and a constant reminder for vigilance and conservation of the species. The species was considered extinct until 1971, when a lone example was located by rangers. Since then, the Charles Darwin Research Station has been searching for a female tortoise, even posting a reward of $10,000 to those that find one.
Dominic Green's story first appeared in Interzone (IZ) magazine, issue 198, May/June 2005. It topped the 2005 readers' poll as the most popular of the year. Dominic's earlier story, 'Send Me a Mentagram', (IZ 192) was reprinted in the 21st edition of The Year's Best Science Fiction, edited by Gardner Dozois; 'The Clockwork Atom Bomb' will feature in the 2006 collection.
The story has also been shortlisted for a Hugo Award, in the category of the best SF short story of 2005. The Hugos - the science fiction equivalent of the Oscars - are based on the votes of science fiction fans worldwide.
In 'The Clockwork Atom Bomb', a UN weapons inspector discovers that an African nation is making alarming use of future technology.
Dominic Green comes from Bakewell, Derbyshire, and now lives and works in Northampton. He is an alumnus of Wellingborough School and St Catharine's College, Cambridge.
Dominic writes short stories and novels but success with the latter has eluded him to date. He hopes his new popularity will help him find a publisher for his novels so that he can follow in the footsteps of Interzone alumni Alastair Reynolds, Stephen Baxter and Greg Egan.
Many thanks to Interzone for granting permission to reproduce 'The Clockwork Atom Bomb'.
International PEN, the worldwide association of writers, was founded in London in 1921 to promote friendship and intellectual co-operation among writers everywhere. PEN originally stood for "Poets, Essayists and Novelists", but now includes writers of any form of literature, such as journalists and historians. Other goals included: to emphasise the role of literature in the development of mutual understanding and world culture; to fight for freedom of expression; and to act as a powerful voice on behalf of writers harassed, imprisoned and sometimes killed for their views. It is the world’s oldest human rights organization and the oldest international literary organization.
Thursday, June 24, 2010
The birds-of-paradise are members of the family Paradisaeidae of the order Passeriformes. The majority of species in this family are found on the island of New Guinea and its satellites, with a few species occurring in the Moluccas of Indonesia and eastern Australia. The family has forty species in 13 genera. The members of this family are perhaps best known for the plumage of the males of most species, in particular highly elongated and elaborate feathers extending from the beak, wings or head. For the most part they are confined to dense rainforest habitat. The diet of all species is dominated by fruit and to a lesser extent arthropods. The birds-of-paradise have a variety of breeding systems, ranging from monogamy to lek based polygamy.
The family is of cultural importance to the inhabitants of New Guinea. The trade in skins and feathers of the birds-of-paradise has been going on for two thousand years, and the birds have been of considerable interest to western collectors, ornithologists and writers as well. A number of species are threatened by hunting and habitat loss.
Wednesday, June 23, 2010
Herbology is a traditional practice of medicine based on the use of plants, minerals, and fungi, and their medicinal properties. It is sometimes referred to as both medical and botanical herbalism, herbal medicine, and phytotherapy. A herbologist is a physician who studies and utilizes the use of plants and their extracts as a more natural and direct approach to healthcare.
Glenn Lee Beck (born February 10, 1964) is an American conservative radio and television host, political commentator, author, and entrepreneur. He is the host of The Glenn Beck Program, a nationally-syndicated talk-radio show that airs throughout the United States on Premiere Radio Networks. Beck is also the host of a self-titled cable-news show on Fox News Channel.
As an author, Beck has gained success with six New York Times-bestselling books, with five debuting at #1. Beck is also the founder and CEO of Mercury Radio Arts, a multi-media production company through which he produces content for radio, television, publishing, the stage, and the Internet.
Beck has become a well-known public figure, whose provocative and often polarizing views have afforded him media recognition and popularity, along with controversy and criticism. To his supporters, he is a champion in defense of traditional American values from secular progressivism, while his detractors say he promotes conspiracy theories and uses incendiary rhetoric.
Monday, June 21, 2010
"Rip Van Winkle" is a short story by the American author Washington Irving published in 1819, as well as the name of the story's fictional protagonist. Written while Irving was living in Birmingham, England, it was part of a collection entitled The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. Although the story is set in New York's Catskill Mountains, Irving later admitted, "When I wrote the story, I had never been on the Catskills."
"Showing off. Figured out how to work the Google on the internet machine."
Reference: Will Ferrell as Chaz Michael Michaels
At this year E3, the surprises were more of the latter, and no one amazed me more than Nintendo with a handful of amazing announcements. The most important one was the Nintendo 3DS, which promised 3D without the glasses. I was skeptical of this at first. I mean could this really be true? If all these high-tech companies can’t figure out the glasses bit, how could Nintendo?
Well, the Nintendo 3DS is legit. It works beautifully, almost like magic. Your eyes naturally drift to the 3D screen and just stay there, hypnotized. The effect feels like you’re looking at one of those 3D baseball cards, only this feels more real. What makes this device so brilliant is that there’s a viralness to the experience.
The 3D isn’t something that can be translated on video or on a glossy magazine. It’s something that needs to be seen to be believed, but once you glance at the screen, it’s hard not to be sold on Nintendo’s new hand-held. It’s something that may be as important as when games went into another type of 3D — from sprites to polygons.
Saturday, June 19, 2010
Like something straight out of a Jules Verne novel, an enormous tentacled creature looms out of the inky blackness of the
deep Pacific waters.
But this isn't science fiction. A set of extraordinary images captured by Japanese scientists marks the first-ever record of
a live giant squid (Architeuthis) in the wild.
The animal—which measures roughly 25 feet (8 meters) long—was photographed 2,950 feet (900 meters) beneath the North Pacific
Ocean. Japanese scientists attracted the squid toward cameras attached to a baited fishing line.
The scientists say they snapped more than 500 images of the massive cephalopod before it broke free after snagging itself on
a hook. They also recovered one of the giant squid's two longest tentacles, which severed during its struggle.
The photo sequence, taken off Japan's Ogasawara Islands in September 2004, shows the squid homing in on the baited line and
enveloping it in "a ball of tentacles."
Tsunemi Kubodera of the National Science Museum in Tokyo and Kyoichi Mori of the Ogasawara Whale Watching Association report
their observations this week in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
"Architeuthis appears to be a much more active predator than previously suspected, using its elongated feeding tentacles to
strike and tangle prey," the researchers write.
They add that the squid was found feeding at depths where no light penetrates even during the day.
Despite people's fascination with this deep-sea behemoth, the giant squid's life and habits have remained largely a mystery.
The little information known has been mostly based on dead and dying specimens that were caught by commercial fishing boats
or washed ashore.
The mysterious creature has inspired countless sea monster tales and has been the subject of various scientific expeditions.
UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda) was hampered from the outset by resistance from numerous members of the United Nations Security Council to becoming deeply involved first in the Arusha process and then the genocide. Only Belgium had asked for a strong UNAMIR mandate, but after the murder of the ten Belgian peacekeepers protecting the Prime Minister in early April, Belgium pulled out of the peacekeeping mission.
The UN and its member states appeared largely detached from the realities on the ground. In the midst of the crisis, Dallaire was instructed to focus UNAMIR on only evacuating foreign nationals from Rwanda, and the change in orders led Belgian peacekeepers to abandon a technical school filled with 2,000 refugees, while Hutu militants waited outside, drinking beer and chanting "Hutu Power." After the Belgians left, the militants entered the school and massacred those inside, including hundreds of children. Four days later, the Security Council voted to reduce UNAMIR to 260 men.
Following the withdrawal of the Belgian forces, Lt-Gen Dallaire consolidated his contingent of Canadian, Ghanaian and Dutch soldiers in urban areas and focused on providing areas of "safe control". His actions are credited with directly saving the lives of 20,000 Tutsis. The administrative head of UNAMIR, former Cameroonian foreign minister Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh, has been criticized for downplaying the significance of Dallaire's reports and for holding close ties to the Hutu militant elite.
The US government was reluctant to involve itself in the "local conflict" in Rwanda, and refused to even refer to it as "Genocide", a decision which President Bill Clinton later came to regret in a Frontline television interview in which he states that he believes if he had sent 5,000 US peacekeepers, more than 500,000 lives could have been saved.
The new Rwandan government, led by interim President Théodore Sindikubwabo, worked hard to minimize international criticism. Rwanda at that time had a seat on the Security Council and its ambassador argued that the claims of genocide were exaggerated and that the government was doing all that it could to stop it. Representatives of the Rwandan Roman Catholic Church, long associated with the radical Hutus in Rwanda, also used their links in Europe to reduce criticism. France, which felt the US and UK would use the massacres to try to expand their influence in that Francophone part of Africa, also worked to prevent a foreign intervention.
Finally, on May 17, 1994, the UN conceded that "acts of genocide may have been committed." By that time, the Red Cross estimated that 500,000 Rwandans had been killed. The UN agreed to send 5,500 troops to Rwanda, most of whom were to be provided by African countries. This was the original number of troops requested by General Dallaire before the killing escalated. The UN also requested 50 armoured personnel carriers from the U.S., but for the transport alone they were charged 6.5 million U.S. dollars by the U.S. army. Deployment of these forces was delayed due to arguments over their cost and other factors.
On June 22, with no sign of UN deployment taking place, the Security Council authorized French forces to land in Goma, Zaire on a humanitarian mission. They deployed throughout southwest Rwanda in an area they called "Zone Turquoise," quelling the genocide and stopping the fighting there, but often arriving in areas only after the Tutsi had been forced out or killed. Operation Turquoise is charged with aiding the Hutu army against the RPF. The former Rwandan ambassador to France Jacques Bihozagara has testified, "Operation Turquoise was aimed only at protecting genocide perpetrators, because the genocide continued even within the Turquoise zone." France has always denied any role in the killing.
Friday, June 18, 2010
The Starry Night (Dutch: De sterrennacht) is a painting by Dutch post-impressionist artist Vincent van Gogh. The painting depicts the view outside his sanatorium room window at night, although it was painted from memory during the day. Since 1941 it has been in the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. Reproduced often, the painting is widely hailed as his magnum opus.
Thursday, June 17, 2010
In cryptography, SAFER (Secure And Fast Encryption Routine) is the name of a family of block ciphers designed primarily by James Massey (one of the designers of IDEA) on behalf of Cylink Corporation. The early SAFER K and SAFER SK designs share the same encryption function, but differ in the number of rounds and the key schedule. More recent versions — SAFER+ and SAFER++ — were submitted as candidates to the AES process and the NESSIE project respectively. All of the algorithms in the SAFER family are unpatented and available for unrestricted use.
Tuesday, June 15, 2010
Caffeine and taurine are not similar substances. Caffeine is a stimulant, and taurine is an amino acid. Taurine supports neurological development and helps regulate the level of water and mineral salts in the blood. Taurine is also thought to have antioxidant properties.
Taurine is found naturally in meat, fish and breast milk, and it's commonly available as a dietary supplement. Some studies suggest that taurine supplementation may improve athletic performance, which may explain why taurine is used in many energy drinks. Other studies suggest that taurine and caffeine act together to improve athletic and perhaps even mental performance, although this finding remains controversial.
Up to 3,000 milligrams of supplemental taurine a day is considered safe. Any excess taurine is simply excreted by the kidneys. Moderation is important, however. Little is known about the effects of heavy or long-term taurine use. It's also important to remember that other ingredients in energy drinks, such as high amounts of caffeine or sugar, can be harmful. For example, too much caffeine can increase your heart rate and blood pressure, interrupt your sleep, and cause nervousness and irritability.
To ensure peak performance, don't depend on energy drinks and supplements. Instead, focus on a healthy lifestyle. Eat healthy foods, include physical activity in your daily routine and get enough sleep.
Monday, June 14, 2010
Let’s break this myth together. Even though, it is true, that being a human we don’t have a very good night vision, it is possible to improve the night vision largely with the help of few methods. Actually, night vision largely depends on some factor and although it is not possible to drastically improve one’s vision, it is possible to better it. Explore the following pointers to know how to improve one’s night vision.
Tips for Improving Night Vision
* Use your peripheral vision for night. The structure of the eye is such that it has ‘rod’ and ‘cone’ cells and while cone cells are better in color detection, rod cells are capable in catching movement and are better for low light. To increase night vision, you need to not to directly look at something and glance sideways that means using rod cells more.
* Keeping your eyes adjusted to the dark also helps in improving night vision. If you are entering a dark area from a much-lighted one, close your eyes before you enter the dark area. You can squint or keep one hand on your eye also.
* Practice makes a man perfect and it can improve night vision too. Shut out all the lights, close the shades, and try seeing the room in dark. You would find that with time your night vision has improved.
* Using the rod cells, scan the dark area instead of staring at one object. Keep your eyes flicking forth and back and you would be able to see better in dark.
* You also need to avoid looking directly at the bright light sources while you are navigating in the dark in order to see better in dark.
* Allow ample time for your eyes to be able to adjust to the dark. It takes around 25 to 30 minutes for eyes to entirely adjust to the dark.
* Smoking weakens the ability to see in the dark. Avoid first hand and even passive smoking to help you increase your night vision.
* As rod cells are active during dark, try searching for shapes and form and not colors in the dark.
* Take vitamin A supplements and other vitamins and minerals for improving night vision. You can also take carrot and carrot juice to help you increase the night vision. Nutrients like Lutein, Ginkgo Biloba, Bilberry, Zeaxanthin, etc helps in improving night vision.
* The eye patch of pirates also may help increasing the night vision. Keep one hand on one eye and try looking from the other eye when moving from light to dark or dark to light.
* Squeezing eyes for almost ten seconds when in dark, also may help you see better.
* Eating a piece of sugar helped the Soviet Special Forces to see better in dark. Actually, night vision depends largely on the sugar level in the blood.
* You need to remember that these are just some methods of improving night vision and if you still find impaired vision at night, you need to consult a physician for thorough examination.
Aspheric lenses are any lenses whose surface angles and profiles are neither part of a sphere nor part of a cylinder. Conventional or non-aspheric lenses have the same curve across their entire surface, like a ping-pong ball. Aspheric lenses accomplish the same amount of refraction but are flatter and slimmer.
Sunday, June 13, 2010
Organic oils are also produced by plants, animals, and other organisms through organic processes, and these oils are remarkable in their diversity. Oil is a somewhat vague term in chemistry; instead, the scientific term for oils, fats, waxes, cholesterol, and other oily substances found in living things and their secretions, is lipids.
Lipids, ranging from waxes to steroids, are somewhat hard to characterize, and are united in a group almost solely based on the fact that they all repel, or refuse to dissolve in, water, and are however comfortably miscible in other liquid lipids. They also have a high carbon and hydrogen content, and are considerably lacking in oxygen compared to other organic compounds and minerals.
Aleşd (Hungarian: Élesd) is a town in Bihor County, western Romania. It is located in the east of the county, near the border with Cluj county.
Aleşd is located on the main railway line between Oradea and Bucharest. Consequently, it is served by frequent rapid and intercity (IC) trains from Cluj-Napoca, Bucharest, Arad and Timişoara.
Saturday, June 12, 2010
Marilyn Monroe (June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), born Norma Jeane Mortenson, but baptized Norma Jeane Baker, was an American actress, singer and model. After spending much of her childhood in foster homes, Monroe began a career as a model, which led to a film contract in 1946. Her early film appearances were minor, but her performances in The Asphalt Jungle and All About Eve (both 1950) were critically acclaimed. In a few years, Monroe reached stardom and was cast as the leading lady in such films as Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, How to Marry a Millionaire, The Seven Year Itch, and Some Like It Hot.
The typecasting of Monroe's "dumb blonde" persona limited her career prospects, so she broadened her range. She studied at the Actors Studio and formed Marilyn Monroe Productions. Her dramatic performance in Bus Stop was hailed by critics, and she won a Golden Globe Award for Some Like it Hot.
The final years of Monroe's life were marked by illness, personal problems, and a reputation for being unreliable and difficult to work with. The circumstances of her death, from an overdose of barbiturates, have been the subject of conjecture. Though officially classified as a "probable suicide," the possibility of an accidental overdose, as well as the possibility of homicide, have not been ruled out. In 1999, Monroe was ranked as the sixth greatest female star of all time by the American Film Institute.
In the years and decades following her death, Monroe has often been cited as a pop and cultural icon.